This section is intended for users with programming skills.
Sublime Text can be extended through Python plugins. Plugins build features by reusing existing commands or creating new ones. Plugins are a logical entity, rather than a physical one.
In order to write plugins, you must be able to program in Python. At the time of this writing, Sublime Text uses Python 3.3.
# Where to Store Plugins
Sublime Text will look for plugins only in these places:
As a consequence, any plugin nested deeper in
Packages won't be loaded.
Keeping plugins directly under
Packages is discouraged. Sublime Text sorts
packages in a predefined way before loading them, so if you save plugin files
Packages you might get confusing results.
# Your First Plugin
Let's write a "Hello, World!" plugin for Sublime Text:
- Select Tools | New Plugin... in the menu.
- Save to
You've just written your first plugin! Let's put it to use:
- Create a new buffer (Ctrl N).
- Open the Python console (Ctrl `).
view.run_command("example")and press enter.
You should see the text "Hello, World!" in the newly created buffer.
# Analyzing Your First Plugin
The plugin created in the previous section should look roughly like this:
import sublime import sublime_plugin class ExampleCommand(sublime_plugin.TextCommand): def run(self, edit): self.view.insert(edit, 0, "Hello, World!")
sublime_plugin modules are provided by
Sublime Text; they are not part of the Python standard library.
As we mentioned earlier, plugins reuse or create commands. Commands are an essential building block in Sublime Text. They are simply Python classes that can be called in similar ways from different Sublime Text facilities, like the plugin API, menu files, macros, etc.
Sublime Text Commands derive from the
*Command classes defined in
sublime_plugin (more on this later).
The rest of the code in our example is concerned with particulars of
TextCommand or with the API. We'll discuss those topics in later sections.
Before moving on, though, we'll look at how we invoked the new command: first
we opened the Python console and then we issued a call to
view.run_command(). This is a rather inconvenient way of calling commands,
but it's often useful when you're in the development phase of a plugin. For
now, keep in mind that your commands can be accessed through key bindings
and by other means, just like other commands.
# Conventions for Command Names
You may have noticed that our command is named
ExampleCommand, but we
passed the string
example to the API call instead. This is necessary
because Sublime Text standardizes command names by stripping the
suffix, splitting subwords of
PhrasesLikeThis with underscores, and lower-casing it, like so:
New commands should follow the same naming pattern.
# Types of Commands
You can create the following types of commands:
- Window commands (
- Text commands (
When writing plugins, consider your goal and choose the appropriate type of commands.
# Shared Traits of Commands
All commands need to implement a
.run() method in order to work. Additionally,
they can receive an arbitrarily long number of keyword parameters.
Note: Parameters to commands must be valid JSON values due to how ST serializes them internally.
# Window Commands
Window commands operate at the window level. This doesn't mean that you can't
manipulate views from window commands, but rather that you don't need views in
order for window commands to be available. For instance, the built-in command
new_file is defined as a
WindowCommand so it works even when no view
is open. Requiring a view to exist in that case wouldn't make sense.
Window command instances have a
.window attribute to point to the window
instance that created them.
.run() method of a window command doesn't require any positional
Window commands are able to route text commands to their window's active view.
# Text Commands
Text commands operate at the view level, so they require a view to exist in order to be available.
Text command instances have a
.view attribute pointing to the view instance
that created them.
.run() method of text commands requires an
edit instance as
its first positional argument.
# Text Commands and the
The edit object groups modifications to the view so that undo and macros work sensibly.
Note: Contrary to older versions, Sublime Text 3 doesn't allow programmatic
control over edit objects. The API is in charge of managing their life cycle.
Plugin creators must ensure that all modifying operations occur inside the
.run method of new text commands. To call existing commands, you can use
view.run_command(<cmd_name>, <args>) or similar API calls.
# Responding to Events
Any command deriving from
EventListener will be able to respond to events.
# Another Plugin Example: Feeding the Completions List
Let's create a plugin that fetches data from Google's Autocomplete service and then feeds it to the Sublime Text completions list. Please note that, as ideas for plugins go, this a very bad one.
import sublime import sublime_plugin from xml.etree import ElementTree as ET import urllib GOOGLE_AC = r"http://google.com/complete/search?output=toolbar&q=%s" class GoogleAutocomplete(sublime_plugin.EventListener): def on_query_completions(self, view, prefix, locations): elements = ET.parse( urllib.request.urlopen(GOOGLE_AC % prefix) ).getroot().findall("./CompleteSuggestion/suggestion") sugs = [(x.attrib["data"],) * 2 for x in elements] return sugs
Make sure you don't keep this plugin around after trying it or it will interfere with the autocompletion system.
# Learning the API
The API reference is documented at https://www.sublimetext.com/docs/3/api_reference.html.
To get acquainted with the Sublime Text API and the available commands, it may be helpful to read existing code and learn from it.
In particular, the
Packages/Default contains many examples of
undocumented commands and API calls. Note that you will first have to extract
its contents to a folder if you want to take a look at the code within -
helps with this.